By accentuating the security risks associated with global warming, governments may be more inclined to act, as security issues are crucial to governing a state

By accentuating the security risks associated with global warming, governments may be more inclined to act, as security issues are crucial to governing a state.

Even though global warming is acknowledged as a man-made disaster, governments have failed to fully stop its effects. This can be attributed to the difficulty in governing the global commons, the spread of globalisation and the potential effects on the economy of cutting emissions, as well as the difficulty in reaching global cooperation in environmental policy. Governments still face the task of finding a socially optimal level of regulation, the difficulty of ensuring emission standards are met once a treaty has been signed[22], as well as managing the connections between climate change, security, and globalisation. However, if powerful nations take the lead in promoting environmental norms, and if states adopt a precautionary principle on global warming, international cooperation can potentially succeed in providing governance regimes for important global commons.

Word count: 1500

Baylis, J. Smith, S. and Owens, P. (eds), The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations, 4th Edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

Steans, J. and Pettiford, L. (2005), International Relations: Perspectives and Themes, 2nd Edition, (Harlow: Pearson Education).

Krugman, P. Wells, R. Graddy, K. (2008), Economics; European Edition, (Worth Publishers).

Cline, W. (1992), The Economics of Global Warming, (Institute for International Economics).

Victor, D. (2001), The Collapse of the Kyoto Protocol and the Struggle to slow Global Warming, (Princeton University Press).

Nordhaus, W. Boyer, J. (2000) Warming the World: Economic Models of Global Warming, (Massachusetts Institute of Technology).

Hardin, G. (1998), ‘Extensions of the Tragedy of the Commons’, Science; New Series, 5634(280): 682-683

Barnett, J. (2003), ‘Security and Climate Change’, Global Environmental Change, 13(1): 7-17

Falkner, R. (2005), ‘American Hegemony and the Global Environment’, International Studies Review, 7(4): 585-599

Hersch, J. Viscusi, K. (2006), ‘Allocating Responsibility for Failure of Global Warming Policies’, Responses to Global Warming: The Law, Economics, and Science of Climate Change, 155(20): 1657-1694

Barrett, S. (1990) , ‘The Problem of Global Environmental Protection’, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 6(1): 68-79

Robert, K. Basile, G. Kuehr, R. (2002) ‘Strategic Sustainable Development – Selection, Design and Synergies of Applied Tools’, Journal of Cleaner Production, 10(3): 197-214

Houghton, J. (2005) ‘Global Warming’, Reports on the Progress of Physics, 68(1): 1343-1403

Flohn, H. (1980), ‘Possible Climatic Consequences of a Man-made Global Warming’ United Nations Environment Programme, at: http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Publications/Documents/RR-80-030.pdf

[1] Houghton, J. (2005) ‘Global Warming’, Reports on the Progress of Physics, 68(1) p.1343

[2] Flohn, H. (1980), ‘Possible Climatic Consequences of a Man-made Global Warming’ United Nations Environment Programme, at: http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Publications/Documents/RR-80-030.pdf, (Date Accessed: 20/02/2010)

[3] Hardin, G. (1998), ‘Extensions of the Tragedy of the Commons’, Science; New Series, 5634(280) p. 682

[4] Barrett, S. (1990), ‘The Problem of Global Environmental Protection’, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 6(1) p.68

[5] Baylis, J. Smith, S. and Owens, P. (eds), The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations, 4th Edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press) p.358

[6] Hardin, G. (1998), ‘Extensions of the Tragedy of the Commons’, Science; New Series, 5634(280) p. 683

ap biology essay questions

[7] Baylis, J. Smith, S. and Owens, P. (eds), The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations, 4th Edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press) p.352

[8] Nordhaus, W. Boyer, J. (2000) Warming the World: Economic Models of Global Warming, (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) p.3

[9] Hersch, J. Viscusi, K. (2006), ‘Allocating Responsibility for Failure of Global Warming Policies’, Responses to Global Warming: The Law, Economics, and Science of Climate Change, 155(20) p.1659

[10] Krugman, P. Wells, R. Graddy, K. (2008), Economics; European Edition, (Worth Publishers) p.483

[11] Baylis, J. Smith, S. and Owens, P. (eds), The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations, 4th Edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press) p.362

[12] Robert, K. Basile, G. Kuehr, R. (2002) ‘Strategic Sustainable Development – Selection, Design and Synergies of Applied Tools’, Journal of Cleaner Production, 10(3) p.202

[13] Cline, W. (1992), The Economics of Global Warming, (Institute for International Economics) p.9

[14] Baylis, J. Smith, S. and Owens, P. (eds), The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations, 4th Edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press) p.356

[15] Houghton, J. (2005) ‘Global Warming’, Reports on the Progress of Physics, 68(1) p.1391

[16] Steans, J. and Pettiford, L. (2005), International Relations: Perspectives and Themes, 2nd Edition, (Harlow: Pearson Education) p.214

[17] Falkner, R. (2005), ‘American Hegemony and the Global Environment’, International Studies Review, 7(4) p.585

[18] Steans, J. and Pettiford, L. (2005), International Relations: Perspectives and Themes, 2nd Edition, (Harlow: Pearson Education) p.206

[19] Hersch, J. Viscusi, K. (2006), ‘Allocating Responsibility for Failure of Global Warming Policies’, Responses to Global Warming: The Law, Economics, and Science of Climate Change, 155(20) p.1662

[20] Krugman, P. Wells, R. Graddy, K. (2008), Economics; European Edition, (Worth Publishers) p.481

[21] Barnett, J. (2003), ‘Security and Climate Change’, Global Environmental Change, 13(1) p.10

[22] Victor, D. (2001), The Collapse of the Kyoto Protocol and the Struggle to slow Global Warming, (Princeton University Press) p.55

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2183 words (9 pages) Essay

1st Jan 1970 English Language Reference this

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With the rapid development of economy, the issue of the causes of global warming has been brought into public focus. The reason is that global warming results an increase in the average temperature of the earth’s atmosphere, which effects human’s living, animal’s living, and plant’s growth. However, most of people state that the most significant reason of the cause of global warming is a natural phenomenon. As a matter of fact, it is modern anthropogenic global warming. In this research paper, I intend to research this thorny topic from five aspects. There are population, eating meat, pets, forest destruction, and air pollution. In addition to examining causes, I will also consider some briefness of the effects of the global warming. First of all, I want to begin my research paper with three definitions of the key ward “global warming”. I will provide a brief description of the causes of global warming.

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First of all, according to my research paper topic “the causes of global warming”. I want to begin with the keyword “global warming”. It means “an increase in the earth’s atmospheric and oceanic temperatures” (Merriam-Webster’s Online Dictionary). Therefore, when people talk “global warming,” it is a fact that people are living in an earth where the temperature is becoming higher and higher. The cause of global warming refers to the global temperature increasing. The cause global warming is mainly due to human beings in nearly a century, using a lot of fossil fuels ( such as coal and oil), discharging large amounts of CO2 and other greenhouse gases, leading global warming. The consequences of global warming will lead to a global redistribution of precipitation, melting glaciers and permafrost, and rising sea levels. Not only global warming endangers the balance of natural ecosystems, but also it threatens human food supply and living environment (Rationalwiki).

From internet, I also get some specific definitions. The online dictionary says that global warming is “an increase in the earth’s average atmospheric temperature that causes corresponding changes in climate and that may result from the greenhouse effect” (dictionary.com). In other sources, Wikipedia claims that global warming is “the increase in the average temperature of the Earth’s near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation” (Wikipedia). In other words, the situation means that people are living in a place where the temperature of the Earth’s near-surface air and oceans is raising constantly and the different species are continually decreasing. That is a very critical condition that people in face ,because human can not live in that high temperature and the resources of human’s living are reducing in that situation.

People have paid most attention on the different explanation of the causes of global warming, at the same time it raises the debate on the political and economic. Global warming is caused by many things. The causes are split up into two groups, man-made or anthropogenic causes, and natural causes. “The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concludes that most of the observed temperature increase since the middle of the 20th century was caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases resulting from human activity such as fossil fuel burning deforestation” (Wikipedia). From this section, it is no exaggeration to say that the most important reasons for this situation people who be confronted with global warming is resulted from human themselves.

“Human activity since the Industrial Revolution has increased the smount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, leading to increased radiative forcing from CO2, methane, tropospheric ozone, CFCs and nitrous oxide. The concentrations of CO2 and methane have increased by 36% and 148% respectively since the mid-1700s” (Wikipedia). From this definition, we can simply understand the causes of global warming. The source of global warming is from the CO2 of the air and fossil fuel burning has produced about three-quarters of the increase in CO2 from human activity over the past 20 years, however most of the rest is due to deforestation.

Most of scientists believe that a large number of emissions of greenhouse gases caused by increased greenhouse effect may be the basic causes of global warming.

Now I will discuss the causes of global warming, there are five causes of global warming: 1) population (The Canadian Press,2009 and CBC News); 2) eating meat (Juliette Jowit, environment editor The Observer, Sunday 7 September 2008); 3) pets (Cathal Kelly Feature writer); 4) forest destruction; and 5) burning. I intend to provide a brief description for each cause.

As we know from the Canadian press, some experts said that in developing countries offering contraceptives to women could slow down climate change through presenting population growth. In this report, it said that as a matter of fact over 200 million women want contraceptives but they do not keep them. However, it results in 76 million women conceive without consciousness every year (The Canadian Press, 2009).

In other ways, the editors say that if those women had some ways to keep the free condoms or other birth-control ways, the rates of population growth would increase slowly. Then it is possible that the environment would reduce. It is because we breathe out CO2 into air that the CO2 contributes to global warming. It is said that the population around the world will rise to 9 billion by 2050, in which over 90 per cent of that growth is from developing countries (The Canadian Press, 2009). The most important is that experts state that although the normal population growth is not a substantial increase in global warming, but overpopulation also could result increased demand for food and shelter, which could threaten the environment because it brings global warming with much CO2 (The Canadian Press, 2009).

In recent years, one of the main factors that the rapid increase in population is leading to global warming. Meanwhile, this is a serious dangerous situation affecting a balance between the natural ecological environment. So many people, only its own emissions of carbon dioxide per year would be an amazing figures, the result will directly lead to the content system of atmospheric carbon increasing (CBC News, 2008).

The second cause I want to discuss is that “UN says eat less meat to curb global warming” (guardian.co.uk THE OBSERVER). The editor said that people should give up eating meat on one day per week if they want to help solving climate change. Dr Rajendra Pachauri (chair of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate change) also said that “people should then go on to reduce their meat consumption even further”. However, his comments are very controversial ideas and added on how personals can help solve global warming.

On the other hand, Dr Pachauri also stressed other ways in lifestyle would help to curb global warming. He provides his advice to the food industry, and hoping food industries reduce meat consumption. Because if people stopped buying imported food, people would save lot of carbon emissions. He said that “if the average UK household halved meat consumption that would cut emissions more that if car use was cut in half” (Dr Rajendra Pachauri from guardian.co.uk).

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a third cause of global warming is about pet. According to New Zealand-based researchers Robert and Brenda Vale (CATHAL KELLY, feature writer The Toronto Stan) said that a great many household pets chew up more resources than a lot of cars. According to their figures, “feeding a year has twice the environmental impact of driving a luxury SUV for 10,000 killometres”. It means that a dog’s food in a year is equal to a person’s food consumption. Vale said that “if a person want a big dog, maybe he or she should be a vegetarian and take the bus” (Brenda Vale from The Toronto Stan). This cause is related to the second cause eating meat. Some pets only eat meat, so it is impossible that let those pets be vegetarians. Therefore, Vale advices that people should limit themselves to eco-friendly, vegetarian pets, like hamsters or rabbits (Brenda Vale). So people can image that pet’s food consumption is an amazing.

Around the world, due to natural or man-made factors are causing forest area dropped significantly, which has also been a controversial topic. Because atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide is increasing and that it showed the trend of faster and faster. One of major cause is forest destruction. For fuel in living, using forests is one cause of deforestation. Because the use of forests for wood and charcoal, people have to use them from forests. However, deforestation let large amounts of carbon increasing, and then it will threaten global warming. The most important function of forests is there can absorb carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

“Rainforests play the important role of locking of locking up atmospheric carbon in their vegetation via photosynthesis” (rainforests.mongabay.com) . It is reported that when forests are burned, degraded or cleared, will have the opposite effect: a lot of carbon in the atmosphere is being transformed into carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases (Rainforests). Deforestation is one of the causes to global warming, and it also is the most important reason enhanced greenhouse effect. It is said that “tropical deforestation is responsible for approximately 20% of world greenhouse gas emissions”. In many tropics, forests can save our air from pollution because trees can remove carbon from the atmosphere during the process of photosynthesis and release oxygen back into the air during normal respiration (Wikipedia.).

The final cause I want to provide is burning. A second major cause of global warming has been burning gasoline for transportation. Since the industrial era in 1750, human activities have increased the degree of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In living, burning is using in many aspects such as transportation and industries. In nowadays, there are many cars that burning gasoline in many developing countries. On the other hand, there are also many industries that burning coal and oil, again there are thermal power stations that burning coal and oil. At present, human activity of carbon dioxide is more than 20 times of natural sources of carbon dioxide (Wikipedia). Burning of fossil fuels results in higher carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere.

The increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations for two main reasons: first, the rapid increase in population, second, the rapid increase in consumption of fossil fuels in industrialization in the development of human society. All aspects of that burnings are making atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increased (Wikipedia).

The effects of global warming has been brought into human attention. Human health depends on good ecological environment. It is said that global warming will be the most factor that effecting human health. Extreme high temperature will be the next century plagued human health, which will also become more frequent, more widespread (Wikipedia). On the other hand, global warming effects water stressed. Global warming affects drinking water and agriculture in some coastal zones. Because global warming firstly effect climate change, then increased evaporation will decrease the effectiveness of reservoirs (Wikipedia).

As we can see from this paper, I discuss five causes that have severely affected the global warming. There are pollution, eating meat, pets, forest destruction, and burning. Every cause of global warming is connected with another one. From the industries starts to present, human activity continually create different effects to global warming.

However, human beings are constantly research the causes of global warming, the researchers hope that in the near future they can find some way to slow down the speed of global warming. Because, after all, the reasons of global warming is result of human, so the solution also begins with human.

From the impacts of global warming, the main factors are the emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Human not only increase the carbon dioxide emissions, but also increase deforestation reduction of carbon dioxide.

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2727 words (11 pages) Essay

1st Jan 1970 Politics Reference this

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The film chosen for the analysis is “An Inconvenient Truth”. This is a documentary film made in 2006, directed by Davis Guggenheim and presented by Al Gore, the former Vice-President of USA and a US presidential Candidate. The film deals about global warming and climate change and it presents and explains to the public a crisis that impacts and will impact us all. This film, although not A canadian production, was chosen for several reasons. First climate change and global warming is a global issue, affecting all people on Earth, regardless of their nationality, religion or social status. It is also A canadian issue because Canada is a part of this global community but it also a Canadian issue because of very specific environment in the north of this country. Also, Canada is one of the biggest polluters in the world and is ranked amongst the ‘dirty dozen’: the twelve biggest producers of greenhouse gases. Second, climate change has in the last couple of years become a very important political issue. The issue of global warming and other environmental issues have been widely discussed in the Canadian press while the politicians have been increasingly debating this topic. Since the public awareness about the climate change has grown (partly because of this film!), Canadian voters have made the environment a very important, if not the most important issue in deciding which party to vote for. Third, climate change and global warming have been in the center of media attention because of Canada’s recent withdrawal from the Kyoto protocol. Also the Conservative government’s decision to develop a national plan for the reduction of the greenhouse emissions (instead of joining the international effort) additionally raised public attention Stephen Harper’s government claims that the Kyoto commitment would be too disruptive to Canada’s economy, and hence the change. Finally, the global warming theorists have responded to the documentary with their counter argument; some are good, and others are weak. The proposal of this essay is to attempt to present both sides; what is presented in the film documentary, how it is debunked by supporters of the global warming theory, and what information presented in the documentary and in the response can be debunked; and what is left after the debunking. What science remains after applying science to both arguments?

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The film follows Al Gore’s lectures to mass audiences on global warming and climate change. As Mr. Gore states himself, he has given the lecture a thousand times in cities all over the world. To an average person a retired politician giving a lecture on a complex science issue may seem like something that one would probably sleep through. Yet, Gore is very passionate on the subject; the lecture is very well conceived, prepared and presented. In the film the lecture is combined with dramatic images and facts thus giving it a feeling like a good action movie. Gore is eloquent, funny and entertaining. The facts are presented in a very simple yet extraordinarily effective manner. The lecture as well as the film is most likely aimed at people who know little about this issue. However, even those who believe to know a lot may still be in for several surprises. For example, I was shocked to find out that US cars couldn’t be sold in China since they do not meet the Chinese environmental standards! In fact, Chinese mileage standards are better than the mileage standards in Canada.

“An Inconvenient Truth” is an excellent film, primarily because it manages to get its message across. For the first time, global warming has become a mainstream issue and everybody is talking about it. Even those who criticize the film and call it a lie are nevertheless thinking about it and acting on it. The issues of global warming, climate change and their relationship with the increase of greenhouse gases are not new. In fact as Mr. Gore states in the film, the evidence that there is an increase in CO2 levels in the global atmosphere has been around since the early 1960s. Despite this fact a controversy around this issue arose in past decades. Some sources claimed that the increase in the concentration of green house gases is not a product of human activity at all but is rather a natural process. However, this controversy was not created by the scientific community. There is no doubt amongst scientists that the current global warming is caused by human activities. They have also presented a range of effects that we can expect to occur. The ‘controversy’ is a political creation perpetrated by popular press. As Mr. Gore eloquently tells us, “there is no controversy about these facts. Out of 925 recent articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals about global warming, 0% said that that the causes of global warming are uncertain”.

The success and the impact of the film can be attributed to many dramatic images that are used to show the effects of global warming and which the creators use to punctuate the facts they are presenting. a good example is a photograph of Mount Kilimanjaro in Kenya, Africa. The film begins and ends with image of the Earth, landscapes, seas, lakes and sunsets. The first photo is from the 1970 and then several follow up until 2005. Each show an increasing and alarming reduction of snow and ice at the peak of the mountain with the progression of time. On the last photograph there is hardly any snow. The emotional impact is heightened with dramatic images of New Orleans after the hurricane Katrina. The hurricane was directly linked to climate change and global warming because one of the effects of global warming are more severe storms. Another segment which was chosen to ‘touch’ US viewers was the one in which Mr. Gore discusses the fate of certain low-lying regions in the worst-case event of melted icecaps raising the sea-level by twenty some feet.

The film does a nice job also of giving some perspective to Mr. Gore’s passion. He talks openly and emotionally about his son being hit by a car at the age of six, and how thinking he was going to lose his beloved child made him reconsider his priorities and what he was doing with his life. The emotion of two other events in Mr. Gore’s life and how they inspired his environmental activism also come across in the film: his defeat in Florida to Bush, the death of his sister, a lifelong smoker, from lung cancer and the fact that his family farmed tobacco and didn’t stop until after her death. However, these are very briefly covered but still are an important piece of the story. Furthermore, Mr. Gore’s presentation is very straightforward, simple and precise. He gives it ‘flavour’ by adding jokes, literary quotes and by using a sleek, savvy and sophisticated power-point slide show. These details make up for the lack of literally any other person addressing the audience.

Al Gore and the makers of this film go to great lengths to emphasize that the problem of global warming and the issues related to climate change as well as the urgency of the need to do something about it should not be political issues. To Mr. Gore this issue is so important and the potential consequences so dire that it is necessary to put aside all political differences and to go beyond politics. Yet in the film, the authors cannot help but criticize the Republican Party for their attitude towards the environment. The scenes in New Orleans after Katrina link the consequences of the current US Administration’s lack of action against global warming with the Administration’s failure to act and help the people of New Orleans after the hurricane. There is a scene in which two Republican Presidents are commenting on global warming as a non-issue, an attitude that seems ridiculous at best. To Mr. Gore global warming and its consequence go beyond politics and borders: it is a moral issue. If we do not do something to stop it we will be acting unethically. Nevertheless, he does not steer clear of politics. He compares our current attitude of doing almost nothing against global warming to the attitude of world powers in the 1930s while the Nazi were rising to power in Germany.

Although it should not be a political issue because global warming is a fact and not an ‘opinion’ or one partly or the other, nevertheless it is clear that it is now exactly a political issue.